Controlled trials of interventions to change long-term smoking habits in individuals and reduce the prevalence of smoking in the population form the bulk of the specialised register. Interventions to reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (passive smoking) by nonsmokers are included. Controlled studies of the short term effect of nicotine or other drugs on smoking behaviour in smokers will be included in the register but are not at present the subject of reviews. Interventions to help pregnant smokers will be included in the register but will be covered by reviews in the Pregnancy & Childbirth Group. Studies of the effects of smoking or nicotine in smokers and nonsmokers in laboratory situations will not in general be included in the register. Both randomized and non-randomized studies will be included in the Specialised Register. The decision on whether to include non-random studies will be taken individually for each review.
In addition to controlled studies, Interrupted Time Series studies will be included in the Register for population level interventions such as changes in public policy, legislation, advertising bans or taxation.
Since April 2012 the Specialised Register¬has been¬managed using the Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS) software. This allows the conversion to a study based register in which multiple reports relating to the same study are linked to a single study record. In future this will also be linked to the trial registration record. Studies in the register which are identified on the basis of the type of intervention as possibly relevant to a particular review are assigned internal keywords in the register. These keywords are not published in CENTRAL. Future plans include indexing study characteristics in¬greater detail, allowing more efficient searching for review updates.
Search strategies for the identification of studies
The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) search strategy:
7. (SMOKING and CESSATION):TI,AB,KW
14. #1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6 or #7 or #8 or #9 or #10 or #11 or #12 or #13
16. (#14 not #15)
MEDLINE (via OVID) search strategy:
5. Meta analysis.pt.
6. exp Clinical Trial/
8. randomized-controlled trials/
13. ((clin$ adj5 trial$) or placebo$ or random$).ti,ab.
14. ((singl$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj5 (blind$ or mask$)).ti,ab.
15. (volunteer$ or prospectiv$).ti,ab.
16. exp Follow-Up-Studies/
17. exp Retrospective-Studies/
18. exp Prospective-Studies/
19. exp Evaluation-Studies/ or Program-Evaluation.mp.
20. exp Cross-Sectional-Studies/
21. Comparative study/
22. exp Behavior-therapy/
23. exp Health-Promotion/
24. exp Community-Health-Services/
25. exp Health-Behavior/ or exp Health-Education/
26. 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14 or 15 or 16 or 17 or 18 or 19 or 20 or 21 or 22 or 23 or 24 or 25
27. smoking cessation.mp. or exp Smoking Cessation/
31. exp Tobacco-Smoke-Pollution/
32. exp Tobacco-/
33. exp Nicotine-/
34. ((quit$ or stop$ or ceas$ or giv$) adj5 smoking).ti,ab.
35. exp Smoking/pc, th [Prevention & Control, Therapy]
36. 27 or 28 or 29 or 30 or 31 or 32 or 33 or 34 or 35 [A category smoking terms]
37. exp Smoking/ not 36 [B category smoking terms]
38. 1 or 2 or 3 [Likely CT design terms; RCTs, CCTs, Pragmatic trials]
39. 36 and 26 [A category smoking+all design terms] (24787)
40. 36 and 38 [A category smoking terms+likely CT design terms] (3587)
41. (animals not humans).sh. [used with 'not' to exclude animal studies for each subset]
42. ((27 or 28 or 29 or 30) and REVIEW.pt.) not 39 [Set 4: Core smoking related reviews only]
43. 37 and 26 [B category smoking+all design terms]
44. (43 and 38) not 41 [Set 3: B smoking terms, likely CT design terms, human only]
45. 39 not 40 not 41 [Set 2: A smoking terms, not core CT terms, human only]
46. (36 and 38) not 41 [Set 1: A smoking terms, likely CT design terms, human only]
The new publication type ' PRAGMATIC-CLINICAL-TRIAL' was added in 2014
Lines 1-25 are study design limiting term, with lines 1-4 identifying almost all the relevant¬trial reports.¬Lines¬4-25 increase the sensitivity for trials and also identify other evaluations¬(typically of commmunity based or public policy interventions)¬which we keep in a database but which are not submitted to CENTRAL. Lines 27-35 identify almost all relevant papers involving smoking. Papers retrieved only by line¬37 generally do not have smoking as a target behaviour or an outcome.
Line 46, combining¬the core smoking and core trial design terms, identifies almost records for the specialised register. Line¬45 identifies¬a small number of additional trials,¬some other evaluations, and papers¬useful for the background and discussion section of reviews.¬Line 44 identifies a small number of additional trials but these are less likely to be relevant to reviews.
Since June 2010 we no longer screen¬the results of¬combining lines 36 with the lower relevance design terms as the number of relevant reports identified in this subgroup has been very small.
In addition to the highly sensitive search for trials using OVID we search PubMed at more frequent intervals for review updates, using smoking related and topic related free text and MeSH terms.
EMBASE (via Ovid) search strategy:
1. (RANDOM$ OR FACTORIAL$ OR (CROSSOVER$ OR CROSS OVER$ OR CROSS-OVER$) OR¬¬ PLACEBO$ OR (DOUBL$¬adj BLIND$) OR (SINGL$¬adj BLIND$) OR ASSIGN$ OR ALLOCAT$ OR VOLUNTEER$).TI, AB.
2. CROSSOVER PROCEDURE/ OR DOUBLE-BLIND PROCEDURE/ OR RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL/ OR SINGLE-BLIND PROCEDURE/
3. #1¬or #2
4. SMOKING CESSATION.mp
5. EXPLODE SMOKING CESSATION/
6. EXPLODE SMOKING-/
7. (QUIT$ OR STOP$ OR CEAS$ OR GIV$ OR PREVENT$)¬ADJ SMOK$
8. (EXPLODE PASSIVE-SMOKING/) OR (EXPLODE SMOKING-HABIT/) OR (EXPLODE CIGARETTE-SMOKING/) OR (EXPLODE "SMOKING-CESSATION"/ALL SUBHEADINGS IN DEM,DER)
9. #4 OR #5 OR #6 or #7 OR #8
10. #3¬and #9
PsycLIT/PsycINFO (via Ovid) search strategy
1. SMOKING CESSATION.mp or exp SMOKING CESSATION
2. (ANTISMOKING or ANTI-SMOKING).mp.
3. (QUIT$ or CESSAT$).mp.
4. (ABSTIN$ or ABSTAIN$).mp.
5. CONTROL$¬adj SMOK$
6. exp BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION/
7. #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6
9. (SMOK$ OR CIGAR$ OR TOBACCO$).mp.
11. #8 or #9
12. #7 and #11
13. #10 and #11
14. #1 or #12 or #13
PsycLIT/PsycINFO is also searched for review updates using topic related terms.
ISI databases: Science Citations Index (SCI) and Social Science Citations Index (SSCI). Now searched via Web of Science Strategy:
((smoking cessation) OR (smok* SAME (quit or stop or prevent*))) AND (random* OR trial or control* or (study same smok*))
This strategy replaced an earlier strategy used until 1999: SMOK* & (CESSAT* OR TRIAL* OR RANDOMI* OR PROSPECTIVE OR BLIND). Searched prospectively since between 1996 and 2011.
Clinicaltrials.gov will be searched systematically via the CRS to identify relevant controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions. Records will be linked to published reports or identified as currently unpublished. (Clinicaltrials.gov is already searched for specific reviews using topic related terms and ongoing trials are listed in the Ongoing Studies section of reviews.)
International Journal of Smoking Cessation Volume 1 1992 to Volume 4 Issue 3 1995 (Publication ceased)
Journal of Smoking Related Disorders Volume 1 1990 to Volume 6 Issue 2 1995 (Publication ceased)
Tobacco Control Volume 1 1992 to Volume 4 1995 (from Volume 5 1996 Tobacco Control is indexed on Medline)
These journals have been searched only for trials within the scope of the review group
Nicotine and Tobacco Research searched from Volume 1 March 1999.
Proceedings of the fifth world conference on smoking and health; 1983 July 10-15; Winnipeg
The Global War. Proceedings of the seventh world conference on tobacco and health. 1990 April 1-5; Perth
Building a Tobacco-Free World. Abstracts of the 8th World Conference on Tobacco or Health; 1992 Mar 30-Apr 3; Buenos Aires
Tobacco and Health. Ninth world conference on tobacco and health; 1994 Oct 10-14; Paris
10th World conference on Tobacco or Health (abstract book); 1997 Aug 24-28; Beijing China
11th World conference on Tobacco OR Health; 2000 Aug 6-11 (abstract book); Chicago (handsearch in progress)
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 6th Annual Meeting 2000 February 18-20 Arlington Virginia
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 7th Annual Meeting 2001 March 23-23 Seattle Washington
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 3rd European Conference 2001 September 19-22; Paris France
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 8th Annual Meeting 2002 February 21-23; Savannah Georgia
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 4th European Conference 2002 October; Santander Spain
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 9th Annual Meeting 2003 February; New Orleans
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 5th European Conference 2003 November; Padua, Italy
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 10th Annual Meeting 2004 February; Phoenix Arizona
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 11th Annual Meeting 2005 March; Prague, Czech Republic
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 12th Annual Meeting 2006 February;¬Orlando, FL
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 8th European Conference 2006 September;¬Kusadasi, Turkey
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 13th Annual Meeting 2007 February;¬Austin, TX
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 14th Annual Meeting 2008 February; Portland, OR
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 15th Annual Meeting 2009 April; Dublin, Ireland
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 16th Annual Meeting 2010 February; Baltimore, Md
Searched for controlled trials and other evaluations relevant to the scope of the review group.
Abstracts from conferences have been submitted to CCTR since Issue 4, 2001.
In 1993 all principal investigators who published trials in smoking cessation were contacted directly to identify unpublished studies.
All studies identified for the U.S. DHHS Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Clinical Practice Guideline on Smoking Cessation and listed in the Guideline Technical Report were assessed for inclusion in the register. (Fiore 1996)